Conceptual and theoretical understanding of corruption

causes of corruption

Others have further argued that in centrally planned economies, alleged corruption in the form of gift-giving fulfils the function of creating trust Rivkin-Fish, It consists of the presentation of objective evidence that has been gathered lawfully, of testimony in court being presented truthfully, of the rights of the accused being respected, and so on.

In this section, we highlight four themes that we believe are central to those studies that concern themselves with critique in corruption research: to challenge oversimplification, to unveil interests, to construct alternatives and to creatively engage in theorization.

Moreover, our example of an attempted bribe to secure a gun permit involves a public official.

Theory of corruption and economic development

This act of bribery is evidently an act of institutional corruption; a legitimate institutional process has been subverted. This ethical problem is to be distinguished from the problem of under-resourcing motivated by a desire to hamstring anti-corruption initiatives. We now have, at least notionally, a fourfold distinction in relation to corruptors: 1 corruptors who are morally responsible for their corrupt action and blameworthy; 2 corruptors who are morally responsible for their corrupt action but not blameworthy; 3 corruptors who are not morally responsible for having a corrupt character, but whose actions: a are expressive of their corrupt character, and; b have a corrupting effect; 4 corruptors who do not have a corrupt character and are neither morally responsible nor blameworthy for their corrupt actions, yet whose actions have a corrupting effect, e. Unfortunately, this seems not to be the case either. An academic who plagiarizes the work of others is not committing an economic crime or misdemeanor; and she might be committing plagiarism simply in order to increase her academic status. Suppose someone bribes an immigration official in order to ensure that his friend—who is ineligible to enter Australia—can in fact enter Australia, and thereby have access to life-saving hospital treatment. However, some recent theorists of structural corruption have tended to downplay this relationship. Thus legislators could, and know they could, jointly act to enact campaign finance reform to address the problem of dependency by, for example, restricting campaign contributions. Heather Marquette and Caryn Peiffer. Other theorists, typically referred to as individualists, reject minded collective entities Ludwig ; Miller So a corrupt police officer might be a so-called grass-eater rather than a so-called meat-eater; their corrupt character might only manifest itself in relatively minor forms of corruption, e.

However, it is an assumption of the causal theory of corruption that only human agents are possessed of minds and moral agency. Bibliography Abed, George T.

definition of corruption by different authors pdf

Moreover, corruptors frequently seek to deceive by presenting themselves a committed to the standards that they are secretly violating. More generally, we aim to explore whether the concept of corruption can help us better understand and explain the current conditions and travails of polities around the world.

types of corruption

Although some potential theory-based critiques exist in the critical studies of corruption mentioned above, important contributions to the critical corruption literature over the last decades have been, as previously acknowledged, the anthropological perspectives on corruption.

As Plato pointed out long ago in The Republic, democracies can suffer a serious problem of corruption among the citizenry and when this happens all manner of corrupt practices on the part of leaders and others will not only be visible, they will be tolerated, and even celebrated.

Again, citizens are not necessarily holders of public offices, but they do have an institutional role qua citizens, e. Surely, moral responsibility for corruption of the US electoral system can be assigned to US legislators, in particular, as well as the Funders who finance campaigns in the expectation presumably of favorable legislation if their candidates are elected.

What is corruption pdf

Consider, for instance, kleptocrats, such as Mobuto and Marcos, who have looted billions of dollars from the public purse Sharman , or senior members of multi-national corporations who have been engaged in ongoing massive bribery in China and elsewhere Pei These virtues might be virtues that attach to the person qua human being, e. Haller, D. A less straightforward case is the one where the action does have a corrupting effect. Larmour, Peter and Nick Wolanin eds. Consider the uncorrupted judicial process. Traditionally, it had been focused on agent-centered issues such as motivations, intentions, vices, and self-serving, on the one hand, and on declining regimes, on the other hand. We now have, at least notionally, a fourfold distinction in relation to corruptors: 1 corruptors who are morally responsible for their corrupt action and blameworthy; 2 corruptors who are morally responsible for their corrupt action but not blameworthy; 3 corruptors who are not morally responsible for having a corrupt character, but whose actions: a are expressive of their corrupt character, and; b have a corrupting effect; 4 corruptors who do not have a corrupt character and are neither morally responsible nor blameworthy for their corrupt actions, yet whose actions have a corrupting effect, e.

In the end, that is where de Graaf et al.

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Critiquing corruption: A turn to theory