Dictionaryof research terms papers
Differential Attrition Differential or selective attrition occurs when the rates of dropping out or leaving a study with several data collection waves e. Classification -- ordering of related phenomena into categories, groups, or systems according to characteristics or attributes.
Research terminology pdf
Estimated Sampling Error When researchers use a sample to predict the true but unknown value of a population there is the risk of being wrong. There are several coding strategies that can "fill in" missing data for statistical analyses. Control Group In an experiment, the control group does not receive the intervention or treatment under investigation. Statistical Bias -- characteristics of an experimental or sampling design, or the mathematical treatment of data, that systematically affects the results of a study so as to produce incorrect, unjustified, or inappropriate inferences or conclusions. Variables are negatively correlated if as one increases the other decreases. The term is also used more broadly to describe the tasks performed by members of a research team in schools, early childhood programs, and communities. This creates a finite number of new samples or repetitions. It is also used as a goodness-of-fit test to determine whether data from a sample come form a population with a specific distribution. Unit of Analysis -- the basic observable entity or phenomenon being analyzed by a study and for which data are collected in the form of variables. Examples of constructs in early care and education research include classroom quality, professional development, reading and math achievement, and socioemotional development. The observations or reports are recorded and tracked over a period of time.
Instrument Error A type of non-sampling error caused by the survey instrument or questionnaire itself, such as unclear wording, asking respondents for information they are unable to supply or the instrument being changed in some way during the course of the research.
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Mixed-Method Research A approach to conducting research that involves collecting, analyzing and integrating data from quantitative e. Completion Rate In survey research, this is the number of people who answered a survey divided by the number of people in the sample.
Action Research Action research conducted to solve problems, inform policy, or improve the way that issues are addressed and problems solved. Data -- factual information [as measurements or statistics] used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation.
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Independent Variable A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable. It also indicates how close a value obtained from a survey instrument or assessment is to the actual true value. The range of correlation is from Fixed Effects Regression Regression techniques that can be used to eliminate biases associated with the omission of unmeasured characteristics. Deductive -- a form of reasoning in which conclusions are formulated about particulars from general or universal premises. Covariate -- a product of the correlation of two related variables times their standard deviations. This group can thus be compared to the experimental group. Continuous Variable A variable that, in theory, can take on any value within a range. Modeling -- the creation of a physical or computer analogy to understand a particular phenomenon.
In early childhood and education research, a meta-analysis combines a number of studies usually conducted by a number of different researchers in a variety of contexts to quantify the effect a given independent or treatment variable e. Even though some students graduate when they are younger or older, the norm is that any given student will graduate when he or she is 18 years old.
Research words list
Double Barreled Question A survey question whereby two separate ideas are erroneously presented together in one question. Central Tendency -- any way of describing or characterizing typical, average, or common values in some distribution. It is used to describe and draw meaning from different forms of written e. Causal Relationship -- the relationship established that shows that an independent variable, and nothing else, causes a change in a dependent variable. Social Theories -- theories about the structure, organization, and functioning of human societies. Chi-Square Test There are several different Chi-square tests in statistics. In Bayesian statistics, the posterior probability distribution is the probability distribution once all information is taken into account. That is, data at one level is nested under another level. These may include influencing the respondent in some way, asking questions in the wrong order, or using slightly different phrasing or tone of voice than other interviewers. The outcome of MDS is a visual representation of the patterns of similarities, dissimilarities and distances among these participants. For example, height and weight are positively correlated because as height increases weight also tends to increases.
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