Language contact

In other communities, a high degree of code mixture may be preferred, perhaps because it reflects a sharing of identities.

Global contact and language enrichment

The result of this language contact is reflected in the linguistic system of Middle English , one of the characteristics of which is the absence of grammatical gender. There are many speculations about why this takes place but two reasons can be put forward: 1 speakers have become acquainted with some phenomenon in the second language and switch to it when talking about it, 2 speakers feel that the second language is more prestigious and switch to it to make their speech appear more fashionable. In addition, scholars in interactional linguistics and conversation analysis have studied code-switching as a means of structuring talk in interaction. Language Problems and Language Planning. Especially in formal studies of syntax, morphology, etc. Unlike code-switching, where a switch tends to occur at semantically or sociolinguistically meaningful junctures, this code-mixing has no specific meaning in the local context. In contrast to convergence, speakers might also engage in divergent speech, with which an individual person emphasizes the social distance between him- or herself and other speakers by using speech with linguistic features characteristic of his or her own group. Language Variation and Change,15 3 , pp. Variable yo expression in New Mexico: English influence? Lone English-origin nouns in Spanish: The precedence of community norms Special issue, Gauging convergence on the ground: code-switching in the community, edited by Catherine E.

They tend to inherit much more of the complexity grammatical, phonological, etc. There is no structural upheaval in the recipient language but a gradual penetration due to prolonged exposure to another language by large bilingual sections of a community.

Some communities have highly regular patterns of code switching according to the setting or context of speech, resulting in what is called 'diglossia', where one code is used in informal contexts such as the home, neighborhood, etc.

Subject pronoun expression in bilinguals of two null subject languages. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. The best example of the former is the Media Lengua of Ecuador, a language which incorporates Spanish vocabulary into a virtually unchanged grammatical framework of Quechua. Linguistics, 26 1pp.

Brazil: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Based on comparative sociolinguistics, the results show that this variable use among bilinguals does not converge into a single system.

Hispania, 56 1pp. The former encourages convergence or compromise between languages; the latter encourages divergence, or preservation of language boundaries.

language contact and language conflict

In other communities, the ability to manipulate two codes can lead to very intricate patterns of code alternation and code mixture.

The variety of contact vernaculars surveyed here demonstrates that there is in principle no limit to what speakers of different languages will borrow or transfer from each other, given the right opportunity.

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Definition and Examples of Language Contact